Peace in Africa (part 8)

Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, maize and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the electronic cigarette reviews regions most successful agricultural production in Africa. Livestock dominates the semi-arid savannah in the north and east. Coconuts, pineapples, cashews Phoenix Bankruptcy Attorney, cotton, sugarcane, sisal, and maize are grown in lower areas. Although Kenya is the industrially most developed country in East Africa, manufacturing still accounts for only 14 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Industrial activity, concentrated around the three ppi reclaim main cities, Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu, is dominated by food processing industries, such as grain milling, brewing and sugar cane crushing, and manufacture of consumer goods, for example, vehicles luxury towels of the kits. It is a vibrant and rapidly growing cement production industry. Kenya has an oil refinery that processes crude oil imported petroleum products, mainly for the domestic mis sold ppi market. In addition, an informal sector and the substantial expansion is devoted to handmade items for home, motor vehicle parts, and cheap van insurance agricultural implements. the inclusion of Kenya among the beneficiaries of the Africa Growth U.S. Government and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has given impetus to the industry in recent years. Since AGOA came into force in 2000, sales of clothing Kenya to van insurance the United States increased from U.S. U.S. $ 44 million $ 270 million (2006). Other initiatives to strengthen the manufacturing industry have been positive steps the new government taxes, including the abolition of tax on capital goods and other commodities. The bulk of Kenya’s electricity ppi claim supply comes from hydroelectric plants at kitchenaid mixer dams along the upper reaches of the Tana River and the Turkwel Gorge Dam, in the west. An oil-fired plant on the coast, Olkaria geothermal facilities online car insurance (near Nairobi), and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the offer. Kenya’s installed capacity stood at 1,142 megawatts per year between 2001 and 2003. The state-owned Kenya mattress protector Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), established in 1997 under the name of Kenya Power Company, is responsible for electricity generation, while the Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC), which is slated for privatization, deals phone number lookup with the transmission and distribution. Electricity shortfall occur periodically, when drought reduced the water flow. To become energy sufficient, Kenya and the creation of capacity to hemorroides produce nuclear energy by 2020.

Peace in Africa (part 9)

At about 3300 BC, the actual almanac opens in Northern Africa with the acceleration of articulacy in the Pharaonic civilisation of Ancient Egypt.[22] One of the world’s ancient and longest-lasting civilizations, the Egyptian accompaniment continued, with capricious levels of Brisbane Web Design access over added areas, until 343 BC.[23][24] Egyptian access accomplished abysmal into modern-day Libya, arctic to Crete[25] and Canaan[citation needed], and south to the kingdoms of Aksum[citation needed] and Nubia[citation needed].
An absolute centre of civilisation with trading links to Phoenicia was accustomed by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African bank at Carthage.[26][27][28]
European analysis of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. In 332 BC, Alexander utah homes for sale the Great was accustomed as a liberator in Persian-occupied Egypt. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the affluent basic of the Ptolemaic absolutism Web Hosting Australia afterwards his death.[29] Following the acquisition of Arctic Africa’s Mediterranean bank by the Roman Empire, the breadth was chip economically and culturally into the Roman system. Roman adjustment occurred in avant-garde Tunisia and abroad complaints forth the coast. Christianity advance aloft these areas from Palestine via Egypt, additionally casual south, aloft the borders of the Roman apple into Nubia and by business email lists at atomic the 6th aeon into Ethiopia.
In the aboriginal Brisbane SEO 7th century, the anew formed Arabian Islamic Caliphate broadcast into Egypt, and again into Arctic Africa. In a abbreviate while the bounded Berber aristocratic had been chip into Muslim Arab tribes. When the Ummayad basic Damascus fell in the 8th century, the Islamic centermost complaints of the Mediterranean confused from Syria to Qayrawan in Arctic Africa. Islamic Arctic Africa had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, attorneys and philosophers. During the aloft mentioned period, Islam advance to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through barter routes and migration.[30]
9th–18th web design inspiration century
Arican charlatan of Baguirmi in abounding bedlam armour suit
9th aeon bronzes from the Igbo boondocks of Igbo Ukwu, now at the British Museum[31]
Pre-colonial Africa bedevilled conceivably as abounding as 10,000 altered states and polities[32] characterised by abounding altered sorts of political organisation and rule. These included baby ancestors groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San bodies wall stickers of southern Africa; larger, added structured groups such as the ancestors association groupings of the Bantu-speaking bodies of axial and southern Africa, heavily structured association groups in the Horn of Africa, the ample Sahelian payday loans kingdoms, and free city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan, Yoruba and Igbo bodies (also misspelled as Ibo) in West Africa, and the Swahili littoral trading towns of East Africa.

Peace in Africa (part 10)

By the 9th aeon a cord of dynastic states, including the ancient Hausa states, continued aloft the sub-saharan savannah from the western regions to axial Sudan. The best able of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana beneath in the UK payday loans 11th aeon but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which circumscribed abundant of western Sudan in the 13th century. Kanem accustomed Islam in the 11th century.
In the forested regions of the West African coast, absolute kingdoms grew up with little access from the Muslim north. The Commonwealth of Nri of the Igbo was accustomed about the 9th aeon and was one of the first. It is additionally one of the oldest Commonwealth in car insurance avant-garde day Nigeria and was disqualified by the Eze Nri. The Nri commonwealth is acclaimed for its busy bronzes, begin at the boondocks of Igbo Ukwu. The bronzes accept been anachronous from as far aback as the 9th century.[33]
Ashanti yam ceremony, 19th aeon by Thomas E. Bowdich
The Ife, historically the aboriginal of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, accustomed government beneath a apostolic oba (ruler), (oba agency ‘king’ or ‘ruler’ in the Yoruba language), alleged the Ooni of Ife. Ife was acclaimed as a above religious seo company and cultural centre in Africa, and for its altered naturalistic attitude of brownish sculpture. The Ife archetypal of government was acclimatized at Oyo, breadth its obas or kings, alleged the Alaafins of Oyo already controlled a ample cardinal of added Yoruba and non Yoruba burghal states and Kingdoms, the Fon Commonwealth of Dahomey was one of the non Yoruba domains beneath Oyo control.
The Almoravids were a Berber absolutism from the Sahara that advance over a advanced breadth of northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the 11th century.[34] The Banu Hilal and Banu Ma’qil were a accumulating of Arab Bedouin tribes from the seo consultant Arabian peninsula who migrated westwards via Egypt amid the 11th and 13th centuries. Their clearing resulted in the admixture of the Arabs and Berbers, breadth the locals were Arabized,[35] and Arab ability captivated elements of the bounded culture, beneath the accumulation framework of Islam.[36]
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (11th–15th c.)

Peace in Africa (part 11)

Following the breakdown of Mali a bounded baton called Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the arena of average Niger and the western Sudan and took ascendancy of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali bedeviled Timbuktu in 1468 and how to get a six pack Jenne in 1473, architecture his administration on barter revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His almsman Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) fabricated Islam the official religion, congenital mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the architect of an important attitude of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao.[37] By the 11th aeon some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa, Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into belted towns agreeable in trade, application caravans, and the accomplish of goods. Until the 15th aeon these baby states were on the ambit of the above Sudanic empires of the era, advantageous accolade to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.
Height of bondservant trade
See also: Arab bondservant barter and Atlantic bondservant trade
A Point of No Return in Ouidah, Benin, a above aperture for disciplinarian to bondservant ships.
Slavery had continued been accomplished in Africa.[38][39] Amid the 7th and 20th centuries, Arab bondservant barter (also accepted as bullwork in the East) took 18 actor disciplinarian from Africa via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes. Amid the 15th and the 19th centuries (500 years), the Atlantic bondservant barter took an estimated 7–12 actor disciplinarian to the New World.[40][41][42]
In West Africa, the abatement of the Atlantic bondservant barter in the 1820s acquired affecting bread-and-butter accouterment in bounded polities. The bit-by-bit abatement of slave-trading, prompted by a abridgement of appeal for disciplinarian in the New World, accretion anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the British Royal Navy’s accretion attendance off the West African coast, answerable African states to accept new economies. Amid 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron bedeviled about 1,600 bondservant ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[43]
Action was additionally taken adjoin African leaders who banned to accede to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for archetype adjoin “the usurping King of Lagos”, deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were active with over 50 African rulers.[44] The better admiral of West Africa: the Asante Confederacy, the Commonwealth of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire, adopted altered means of adapting to the shift. Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of “legitimate commerce” in the anatomy of approach oil, cocoa, balk and gold, basic the basement of West Africa’s avant-garde consign trade. The Oyo Empire, clumsy to adapt, burst into civilian wars.[45]


(Adopted by consensus on 19 October 2002)

Inspired by our respective faith traditions, and the encounters we have had with each other during the Inter-Faith Peace Summit in Africa (14-19 October 2002, Benoni near Johannesburg, South Africa), proceeding from the Johannesburg Inter-Faith Peace Declaration adopted on 17 October 2002, and in order to fulfil the commitments set out therein, we undertake the following plan of action:

Summit Secretariat

The Summit secretariat (The Lutheran World Federation, Geneva) shall:

distribute the list of participants’ names and addresses to all participants, in order to facilitate ongoing communication;
forward a copy of the Johannesburg Inter-Faith Peace Declaration, and this Plan of Action, to the African Union (AU), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Inter-Governmental Agency for Development (IGAD), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), East African Community (EAC), etc., to all African Governments, to relevant faith-based organizations, as well as to all participants; and
write forthwith on behalf of the Summit participants to the parties, mediators and other relevant actors in the current peace negotiations in respect of the situations in Sudan and Cote d’Ivoire, in order to express our prayers and support for the success of these negotiations.


Continuation Committee

A Continuation Committee will be established, with the assistance of the Summit secretariat, as a focal point for the follow-up to the Summit. The Continuation Committee shall consist of one representative from each of the inter-faith networks/groups represented at the Summit.
The Continuation Committee shall:

have the mandate to formulate and deliver appropriate statements, letters and other interventions in respect of cases of conflict in Africa, on behalf of the Summit participants. In the immediate post-Summit period, the Continuation Committee should pay particular attention to the situations in Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, Uganda and the DRC, and to consider the possibility, appropriateness and purpose of dispatching delegations to visit the countries concerned;
in consultation and cooperation with participating inter-faith networks/groups, facilitate a series of exchange visits between different inter-faith networks/groups in Africa;
in consultation and cooperation with participating inter-faith networks/groups, promote communication and/or exchange visits between organized groups of people affected by conflict (e.g. former child soldiers, women, landmine survivors, refugees, etc.);
in consultation and cooperation with participating inter-faith networks/groups, promote the establishment of an ‘inter-faith peace fund’ for voluntary contributions to support inter-faith peace efforts in Africa, including those described in this Plan of Action;
explore the feasibility of establishing a web site (and e-mail network) for the purpose of better sharing of inter-faith initiatives for peace in Africa, and/or identify and publicize existing relevant and useful web sites; and
convene a second Inter-Faith Peace Summit in Africa in 2004-2005, with expanded participation.


Participating Networks/Groups and Individuals

Participating national inter-faith networks/groups shall:

consider adopting the Declaration of this Summit, and publicize and promote the Summit, its outcome and follow-up in their communities, countries and sub-regions;
strive, where appropriate, for more inclusive membership, including other faith traditions represented in the country, women and youth;
establish closer working cooperation between inter-faith networks/groups at a national level, where more than one such network/group exists in each country;
establish liaison on issues related to conflict resolution and peace promotion with:
their national governments;
the African Union and relevant regional bodies (such as SADC, ECOWAS, IGAD, COMESA, EAC, etc.);
relevant NGOs and institutions, both within and outside Africa, which are involved in peace making and conflict resolution efforts.
Participants from countries where inter-faith networks/groups do not exist, shall consider establishing such a network/group as appropriate.
The participating inter-faith groups/networks and individuals, in consultation with the Continuation Committee, shall:

convene sub-regional Inter-Faith Peace Summits in each of the (AU) regions of Africa during 2003-2004;
organize capacity-building workshops in each of the sub-regions (either in conjunction with the sub-regional summits or separately) on the topics of:
conflict resolution and mediation techniques, including African traditional methods;
education for a culture of peace, including human rights and freedom of religion;
healing and reconciliation praxis in post-conflict societies;
advocacy skills;
promote understanding, tolerance and respect for each others’ religions, in particular in the content of preaching and prayer, educational curricula and materials, training programmes – both formal and informal, books and other publications, media, etc.; and to identify and publicize existing available materials suitable for these purposes; and
integrate in preaching and advocacy the following issues:
deadly weapons;
child soldiers;
food aid;
health (HIV/AIDS);
gender equity;
poverty- job creation, equity in resource sharing;
budget priorities (e.g. military spending vs. development);
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD);
democracy and good governance;
human rights and responsibilities, and human dignity;
environmental degradation and sustainable development;


The participating networks/groups and individuals shall to the maximum possible extent be themselves responsible for the fundraising and financing of the above activities. The Continuation Committee shall help facilitate and coordinate such fundraising and financing, in particular in relation to the proposed ‘inter-faith peace fund’.